What is Ophthalmology ?
A medical specialty, Ophthalmology is concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a qualified doctor who studies all the vision related problems of the eye. Diseases and conditions of eye are thoroughly examined and treated.
The literal meaning of Ophthalmology is ‘the science of eyes’. The word ophthalmology has been derived from the Greek roots that means eye and discourse or thought. Ophthalmology studies the diseases, disorders, anatomy and functionality of the visual system and the eye.
Ophthalmology Versus Optometry
Often Ophthalmology is confused with Optometry. An Optometrist is primarily concerned with sight testing, diagnosing, correcting and treatment of vision changes. Basically an Optometrist is an eye health care professional and is certainly not a medical doctor. The study of the field of optometry involves performing different vision and eye care tests, detecting certain eye abnormalities, prescribes for several eye care diseases and dispensing and prescribing corrective lenses.
While an ophthalmologist is an osteopathic doctor work primarily on vision and eye care. An ophthalmologist differs from opticians and optometrists in terms of training and treatment. An Ophthalmologist has completed the full training medical program and is licensed to perform surgery and medicine. An ophthalmologist treats and diagnoses all the eye care diseases, prescribes contact lenses and eyeglasses, performs surgeries and corrects the issues relating to eyesight. They are also involved in various scientific eye care researches, eye disorders and diseases.
- LASIK Surgery
- Refractive errors
- Ptosis correction surgery
- Pediatric Opthalmology
- Other eye surgery
- Oculoplasty and Orbit
- Cornea transplant
- Pterygium removal surgery
- Eye muscle surgery
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Retinal surgery
- Cornea and refractive surgery
The Neuro ophthalmology primarily focuses on a large number of optic nerve disorders and neurological disorders. These disorders are connected with ophthalmic diseases. A number of eye disorders are linked with neurologic diseases like strokes, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis. It also deals with many visual problems such as double vision and blurred vision. Neuro Ophthalmology involves neurosurgery, neurology, Neuroradiology and ophthalmology. Generally Neuro-ophthalmology disorders requires communication with physicians, Neuro-ophthalmologists, radiologists, neurosurgeons and specifically general neurologists.
Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Macular Degeneration (AMD) is related to age and is a painless condition of the eye which leads to slow loss of the central vision. The central vision basically helps in directly looking the objects in front of your eye. Many activities like watching television, writing and reading involves the use of central vision. The condition of AMD affects both the eyes and its speed varies from eye to eye.
If the central vision becomes blurred, it will lead to following symptoms –
- A person faces difficulty in reading either the written text or printed text
- A person while reading can experience the colors becoming less vibrant
- A person can also face difficulty in recognizing the other people’s faces
Types of Eye disorders
Wet AMD : Also referred to as neovascular AMD, it’s a serious condition that can lead to deterioration of vision in a few days. Under the macula, the abnormal blood vessels damages its cells that results in the development of wet AMD.
Dry AMD : This condition grows when there is damage of macula cells due to insufficient nutrients that results in the accumulation of waste products known as drusens. This is the most least severe type of AMD. The vision loss happens gradually and those people who have dry AMD will also gradually develop wet AMD.
Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) : Also referred as Keratitis Sicca or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, is the ocular surface and tear disease that leads to tear film disturbance, visual disturbance and discomfort that cause damage to the ocular surface. The two types of DES are – DES didn’t associate with SS (non- SS KCS) and DES associated with the Sjogren syndrome (SS).
Symptoms of DES
- Blurry or fluctuating vision
- Ocular dryness, grittiness and foreign body sensation
- Mucoid discharge
- Excessive tearing
- Ocular irritation