What is Neuro Spine Surgery?
Neurological surgery, also referred to as neurosurgery, is primarily concerned with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disorders that affect any part of the nervous system. The nervous system includes of brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. The surgical procedure of neuro spine surgery is performed for correcting diseases and injuries of the spinal cord so as to relieve the pain caused to spinal cord. The procedure also restores the function of the spinal cord. Lower back and neck conditions are corrected through this procedure.
Types of Neuro and Spine Surgeries
- Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
- Complex Spine Surgery
- Minimally Invasive Neck and Back Surgery
- Gamma Knife
- Artificial Disc
- Skull-based and Pituitary Tumors
- Stereotactic Radiosurgery
- Pain Management
- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
- Spinal Decompression Rehabilitation Therapy (IDD)
- Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Cerebral Vascular Brain Disorders
- Hydrocephalus/ Arnold Chiari Malformation
- Physical Therapy
Conditions Treated by Neuro Spine Surgery
There are different procedures involved in Neuro spine surgery that focuses on the affected vertebrae in the lumbar and cervical spines. Many spinal conditions can be treated that include injuries, degeneration and diseases. Some of the conditions include –
- Brain and Spine Tumors
- Degenerative disc disease
- Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Cervical spinal disc disease
- Neck pain
- Herniated pain
- Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Lower back pain
- Spinal Cord Injury
Surgical Procedures of Neuro Spine Surgery
- Minimally invasive spinal surgery
- Endoscopic brain surgery
- Microsurgery of spine and brain
- Lumbar disc replacement
- Craniotomy for different brain malfunctions and tumors. Craniotomy includes surgery within the skull
- Laminectomy procedures for herniated discs. This is minimally invasive spinal surgery procedure where a small part of the bone is removed so as to have access to the disc.Disc problem can be repaired with this problem.
- Difficult spinal fusions having latest technology such as plates, implantable cages, screws and other devices.
Laser Spine Surgery
Laser spine surgery is an alternative to traditional spine surgery. This is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure that does not require any cutting or disturbing of the muscles and bones. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis and only requires a very small incision. The recovery is also quick in this procedure unlike conventional spine surgery. An endoscope is used for directing a laser beam at the affected area. The laser is passed through the small incision made which is in the back of the back or neck. The other device used in laser spine surgery is the scalpel. Both the direction and placement of the laser depend upon the actual site of the spinal issue. This is known as the best proven procedure for spine related problems.
Cervical Spine Surgery
Cervical spine surgery is performed for eliminating tingling, weakness, pain and numbness caused in the spine. The surgery also prevents the abnormal motion in the spine and also restores nerve function. The surgery is performed for a number of cervical spine problems. The conditions of instability, degenerative disorders or trauma can produce excess pressure on the nerves and on the spinal cord that is coming from the spine.
Total Disc Replacement
The degeneration of the spinal structures may result in neck or back pain that decreases the quality of life. Total disc replacement surgery, also referred to as artificial disc, is a new innovation in spine surgery. The surgical procedure is done for removing pain and also preserves the natural motion. The surgery is recommended when all other therapies have failed. An incision is made by the surgeon at the front of the neck. Before removing the disc material it is important to determine the correct levels. For this Fluoroscopy is used and the artificial disc is then removed.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery
This surgery is performed for relieving the pressure on the nerve roots or the spinal cord. The surgery removes the damaged parts of the spine. The enlargement of the spinal canal is done through this surgery that eases pressure on the nerve. Weakness in the legs, numbness and pain are reduced by performing this surgery. Decompressive laminectomy is the major type of lumbar spinal stenosis surgery. This procedure eases the pressure on the spinal nerve roots. The procedure takes out a part of the bone or fibrous tissue for creating space for the nerves. The procedure of spinal fusion can be performed simultaneously in order to stabilize the spine. The procedure of spinal fusion can improve the function of the spine and also reduces pain.
Anterior Cervical Decompression and Arthroplasty
The surgical procedure aims at eliminating pressure from the nerve roots or spinal cord. The reconstruction of the spine is done to permit for motion at the treated segment.
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
This syndrome results in tingling, pain and different problems of the hand due to pressure caused on the median nerve in the wrist. Carpel tunnel is the little space in the wrist from where many tendons and median nerve runs from the forearm of the hand. The function of the median nerve is to control the feeling and movement of thumb and first three fingers except little finger. The causes of this syndrome include
- Bone spurs and wrist injuries
- Smoking can also decrease blood flow to the median nerve.
- Illnesses such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and hypothyroidism.
Gamma Knife therapy is considered as the best proven and precise treatment for brain disorders. This therapy does not involve any kind of surgery and the therapy involves 201 precise beams of radiation directly on the tumor. The beams are more powerful when they work together on a single point. This therapy destroys the cancer cells and also stops them from multiplying. The tumor disappears after some time.
The building up of the fluid in the ventricles (cavities) deep inside the brain is termed as Hydrocephalus. The size of the ventricles may increase due to excess fluid that places pressure on the brain. This condition can happen at any point in life but is more commonly seen in older adults and infants. The shunt is known as the most common treatment for hydrocephalus where a drainage system is inserted. Ventriculostomy is the other treatment for hydrocephalus condition.
Robots have proven themselves as a perfect instrument as they provide measurement reliability and movement controllability that can face the challenges of Neurorehabilitation. They can take the form of a joystick or a robotic arm that can effectively enclose the limb just like an exoskletal frame. The sensors in the robots can record joint torques, position and velocity which are collectively known as movement data. The limb can be easily moved as these robots possess actuators.