What is Bariatric Surgery ?
Bariatric surgery, also referred to as weight loss surgery, is the procedure done for those people who are severely obese. In this weight loss procedure, the size of the stomach is reduced by implanting gastric banding medical device. This can also be done by re-routing and resecting the small intestines to a small stomach pouch and the process is termed as gastric bypass surgery. The other way could be a removal of the stomach (Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch or sleeve gastrectomy).
Who should consider Bariatric Surgery ?
The candidates should possess these following qualifications so that they can be considered for this weight-loss surgery –
- A candidate should have a BMI (Body Mass Index) in between 35-40. The candidate should also possess an obesity-related condition of diabetes mellitus, severe sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease and hypertension.
- A candidate should have a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 40 or more. The BMI in between 20-25 is considered as normal. The calculation of BMI is done by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms by height in meters squared.
Apart from these, a Bariatric surgery candidate should also be –
- Willing to exercise for at least ninety minutes each week.
- Overweight for more than 5 years.
- Is able and willing to make lifestyle and eating habit changes.
- Have had a short-term success with earlier serious attempts for weight loss.
Types of Bariatric Surgery
Gastric Sleeve : Gastric Sleeve surgery, also referred to as Sleeve Gastrectomy, is primarily performed to remove about 85% of the stomach. The rest 15% of the original capacity of the stomach is left for shaping in the form of a sleeve.
Gastric Bypass Surgery : The purpose of this procedure is to separate the stomach into two unequal sections. Only 5 percent of the stomach area is left for food consumption. The food gets emptied from this small stomach pocket in the upper intestine at the time of digestion.
Biliopancreatic Diversion : Just like gastric bypass surgery, it also creates a smaller stomach. In this, ingested food is not fully absorbed in the intestine.
LAP-BAND Surgery : Around the stomach’s upper part, an inflatable band is used that divides the stomach into two unequal parts. The stomach’s upper part is treated as a new stomach and the food intake is restricted and promotes the weight loss.
Bariatric Surgery Procedure
Restrictive Procedure -The Lap Gastric Band : The surgery is primarily performed for decreasing the amount of food consumption at a time. The purpose is to create restriction so that a person feels satisfied with little amounts of food. Due to smaller outlet, the food remains in the stomach for a long time. The idea is to decrease daily calorie intake without a feeling of deprivation.
The benefits of gastric band include –
- The stomach returns to its original form even if the band is removed.
- The recovery period is also slightly shorter.
- No cutting, removal or stapling of the stomach tissue is done.
- The surgeon can easily control the size of the pouch outlet as the band is adjustable.
Malabsorptive procedures-Roux -En- Y Gastric Bypass : This procedure helps in altering the digestion. The length of the intestine is reduced by using Malabsorptive techniques. When the food comes in contact with the intestine, fewer calories are absorbed. Roux-en-Y is regarded as the gold standard procedure for weight loss surgery.
The benefits of Roux-En-Y include –
- High cholesterol, high blood pressure, sleep apnea and acid reflux are some of the medical conditions associated with obesity. These conditions are either improved or removed after the surgery.
- About 70-80% of the excess body weight is reduced.
- The surgery increases the insulin sensitivity and alters the metabolism of carbohydrates. The surgery sometimes eliminates the need for diabetes medications.
- The average weight loss is much greater than the average achieved through gastric band surgery and sleeve gastrectomy.